• Naturally occurring radioactive material - Wikipedia

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) consist of materials, usually industrial wastes or by-products enriched with radioactive elements found in the environment, such as uranium, thorium and plutonium and any of their decay products, such as radium and radon. Natural radioactive elements are present in ...

  • NORM in oil and gas exploration Hazards Regulation
  • TENORM: Oil and Gas Production Wastes Radiation ...

    2 Development and Operation of a NORM Processing and Disposal Facility for the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry, published in the CRCPD Publication 88-2, 19 th Annual Conference on Radiation Control, May 18 – 21 1987, Boise, ID. CRCPD, Frankfort KY.

  • (PDF) NORM in Waste Derived From Oil and Gas Production

    An addit ional type of NORM associated with oil production has been . ... aspects of the oil and gas industry. NORM surveys detec t radiation and locate and identify the r adiation source.

  • Naturally occurring radioactive material - Canadian ...

    NORM is often found in its natural state in rocks or sand. It can also be associated with oil and gas production residue (such as mineral scale in pipes, sludge and contaminated equipment), coal ash (produced from burning coal for energy production) and on filter media (such as the used filters from municipal drinking water treatment equipment).

  • Commentary No. 29 – Naturally Occurring Radioactive ...

    Both NORM and TENORM can be associated with a wide variety of industries including mineral extraction, other forms of mining, phosphate fertilizer and elemental phosphorous production, and water treatment. The presence of NORM/TENORM in oil and gas fields has been well documented since the early 1900s, soon after the discovery of radium in 1898.

  • norm associated oil industry - jongleerdam.nl

    NORM management in the oil and gas industry. Cowie M(1), Mously K, Fageeha O, Nassar R. Author information: (1)Environmental Protection Department, Saudi Aramco, Dhahran 31311, Saudi Arabia. [email protected] It has been established that naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil and gas ...

  • Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in ...

    of oil-field NORM in the United States, briefly reviews the status of NORM regulations, and identifies some health and environ- mental issues associated with oil-field NORM. Location of Oil-Field NORM in the United States Deposits of oil are found in 30 States, but the vast majority (86 percent) of onshore oil production is concentrated in Texas,

  • UNCOVER THE RISK ASSOCIATED WITH NORM IN OIL GAS

    Jul 07, 2016  Origins: NORMs (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) are present at varying concentrations in the Earth’s crust and consequently also will be present in natural concentrations in gas and oil reservoirs. The NORM concentrations in well fluids may become enhanced due to extraction processes and then form NORM containing deposits within production facilities.

  • NORM Management in the oil and gas industry - ScienceDirect

    1. Introduction. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is a waste product of oil production, and its presence in pipelines, plants, and machinery may restrict operability and cause potential radiological health hazards (Underhill, 1996).Workers who are required to work at a plant or use equipment that is contaminated with NORM may be exposed to external radiation from closed systems ...

  • Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM - World ...

    Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) (Updated April 2020) Radioactive materials which occur naturally and where human activities increase the exposure of people to ionising radiation are known by the acronym 'NORM'. NORM results from activities such as burning coal, making and using fertilisers, oil and gas production.

  • Characteristics of NORM in the oil industry from eastern ...

    NORM wastes associated with oil and gas operations from scale deposits, separated sludge and water at different oil fields in the eastern and western deserts were investigated. Concentrations of the uranium, thorium, and potassium (40K) series have been determined from high-resolution gamma-ray

  • “NORM” IN THE NATURAL GAS AND OIL INDUSTRY

    industry standards, best practices and global collaboration. Associated reporting and transparent activities work together to create an environment where the natural gas and oil industry can effectively monitor, manage, and disclose its work around NORM. WORKPLACE SAFETY: As part of API’s continuous review of industry standards

  • Texas RRC - NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material)

    Jurisdiction over oil and gas NORM waste is split between the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) and the Railroad Commission. The DSHS regulates the possession, use, transfer, transport, and storage of NORM and the Railroad Commission regulates the activities associated with disposal of oil and gas NORM waste.

  • Safety and Health Information Bulletins Potential Health ...

    The State of Louisiana, Department of Environmental Quality has recently issued a notification concerning a potential health hazard associated with handling pipe used in oil and gas production that may be contaminated with radioactive scale from naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM).

  • NORM Contamination in the Petroleum Industry

    NORM Contamination NORM contamination in the oil and gas in­ dustry commonly occurs as radioactive scale, films, and sludges. Radium-Contaminated Scale and Sludge. Radioactive scale can contain uranium, tho­ rium, radium, and associated decay products from the production of oil and associated brines contaminated with NORM. The

  • NCRP Commentary No. 29: Naturally Occurring Radioactive ...

    and disposal of NORM/TENORM associated with the contemporary oil and gas industry. The report should be scientifically based and comprehensive and focus on unconventional oil and gas operations. It should address dose assessments, institutional controls and practices, risk management, and communications with workers and other stakeholders.

  • Implications of COVID-19 for the US Shale Industry ...

    New telecommuting norm: Move towards remote working with 37 percent of US jobs done from home could impact associated transportation demand. New fuel order: Oil-to-gas price convergence and relative strength in natural gas prices provide an upside to investment in natural gas.

  • NCRP Commentary No. 29: Naturally Occurring Radioactive ...

    radiation-safety guidelines for the management and disposal of NORM/TENORM associated with the contemporary oil and gas industry. The report should be scientifically based and comprehensive and focus on unconventional oil and gas operations. It should address dose assessments, institutional controls and practices,

  • Characterization of the TE-NORM waste associated with oil ...

    Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. ... Characteristics of NORM in the oil industry from eastern and western deserts ...

  • Assessment of NORM contaminated waste associated with

    Assessment of NORM contaminated waste associated with oil and gas production from Ghanaian oilfields D. Kpeglo 1, 2, 3J. Mantero 1,4, E. Darko 2,3, G. Reynolds2,3, A ...

  • Assessment of radiation exposures from naturally occurring ...

    This paper, which is a further investigation on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) (Hamlat et al., 1998) describes NORM levels and the associated occupational doses in the oil and gas industry. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Sampling. The crude oil, production water and scale samples were collected from several oilfields.

  • RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS COULD POSE PROBLEMS FOR THE GAS INDUSTRY

    Radioactive scale in the oil and gas industry has been reported in the literature. 5 6 With the notable exception of a 1975 report by Gesell,7 NORM contamination of gas facilities by radon and its ...

  • NCRP Commentary No. 29: Naturally Occurring Radioactive ...

    radiation-safety guidelines for the management and disposal of NORM/TENORM associated with the contemporary oil and gas industry. The report should be scientifically based and comprehensive and focus on unconventional oil and gas operations. It should address dose assessments, institutional controls and practices,

  • Characterization of the TE-NORM waste associated with oil ...

    Oil Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (Oil NORM) in this paper refers to waste coming from oil exploration. ... Characteristics of NORM in the oil industry from eastern and western deserts ...

  • Assessment of NORM contaminated waste associated with

    Assessment of NORM contaminated waste associated with oil and gas production from Ghanaian oilfields D. Kpeglo 1, 2, 3J. Mantero 1,4, E. Darko 2,3, G. Reynolds2,3, A ...

  • Assessment of radiation exposures from naturally occurring ...

    This paper, which is a further investigation on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) (Hamlat et al., 1998) describes NORM levels and the associated occupational doses in the oil and gas industry. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Sampling. The crude oil, production water and scale samples were collected from several oilfields.

  • RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS COULD POSE PROBLEMS FOR THE GAS INDUSTRY

    Radioactive scale in the oil and gas industry has been reported in the literature. 5 6 With the notable exception of a 1975 report by Gesell,7 NORM contamination of gas facilities by radon and its ...

  • Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil ...

    @article{osti_10151521, title = {Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in oil and gas industry equipment and wastes. A Literature Review}, author = {White, G J}, abstractNote = {The purpose of this report is to briefly issues relating to the contamination of oil and gas industry equipment and wastes with accumulations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM).

  • NORM in the oil and gas industry (Journal Article) OSTI.GOV

    @article{osti_96266, title = {NORM in the oil and gas industry}, author = {Steingraber, W A}, abstractNote = {Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the earth`s crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine {open_quotes}concentrations{close_quotes} or specific ...

  • Oil and Gas Industry Factsheet - Bureau of Labor Statistics

    In 2011, the support activities for oil and gas operations industry, the component of oil and gas extraction industries with the most cases requiring days away from work, had a median days away from work of 24, which was 3 times higher than the median of 8 days for all industries.

  • NORM waste management in the oil and gas industry: the ...

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) resulting from the232Th and 238U-series can be concentrated and accumulated in tubing and surface equipment in the form of scale and sludge as a consequence of physical and chemical processes associated with the oil and gas industry1,2,3,4. Radioactive wastes containing NORM are production

  • Characterization of the TE-NORM waste associated with oil ...

    Characterization of the TE-NORM waste associated with oil and natural gas production in Abu Rudeis, Egypt. El Afifi EM(1), Awwad NS. Author information: (1)Analytical Chemistry Department, Hot Laboratories Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Post Office No. 13759, Cairo, Egypt. [email protected]

  • NORM Management in the oil and gas industry - M. Cowie, K ...

    The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice, and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy, and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  • Operations: HSE Health and Industrial Hygiene GoM Region ...

    There are two primary types of NORM in which the oil and gas industry are concerned: radium -226 and radium-228 and their radioactive decay products (“daughters”), in particular radon-222, lead-210, and polonium-210. Radium can be brou ght to the earth’s surface during oil and gas production. Radium is very soluble in produced waters.

  • NORM-disposal options, costs vary Oil Gas Journal

    Commercial Norm Disposal [89,131 bytes] Definitions [41,251 bytes] Petroleum producers have various options with different associated costs for disposing of oil field waste containing naturally ...

  • Naturally occurring radioactive material IAEA

    The processes most often associated with processing of NORM with elevated concentrations of radioactive materials include mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores, production of coal, oil and gas, extraction and purification of water, generation of geothermal energy, and production of industrial minerals, including phosphate ...

  • NORM Management in the oil and gas industry - M. Cowie, K ...

    The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice, and experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy, and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry.

  • Operations: HSE Health and Industrial Hygiene GoM Region ...

    There are two primary types of NORM in which the oil and gas industry are concerned: radium -226 and radium-228 and their radioactive decay products (“daughters”), in particular radon-222, lead-210, and polonium-210. Radium can be brou ght to the earth’s surface during oil and gas production. Radium is very soluble in produced waters.

  • NORM-disposal options, costs vary Oil Gas Journal

    Commercial Norm Disposal [89,131 bytes] Definitions [41,251 bytes] Petroleum producers have various options with different associated costs for disposing of oil field waste containing naturally ...

  • Naturally occurring radioactive material IAEA

    The processes most often associated with processing of NORM with elevated concentrations of radioactive materials include mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores, production of coal, oil and gas, extraction and purification of water, generation of geothermal energy, and production of industrial minerals, including phosphate ...

  • CRCPD E-42 TASK FORCE - REVIEW OF TENORM IN OIL

    2003, centering on unconventional oil and gas recovery, especially with the concerns related to hydraulic fracturing. The E-42 Task Force reviewed and looked at some of those changes, particularly those impacting the oil and gas industry regarding radiation exposure and environmental impact issues. North

  • 5 of the Biggest Risks Faced by Oil and Gas Companies

    May 18, 2020  Despite the risks, there is still a very real demand for energy, and oil and gas play a major part in filling that demand. A long-term risk for oil and gas companies is a dwindling natural supply.

  • The Top 5 Deadly Gases in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Oct 03, 2017  In the oil and gas industry, petroleum gases are often referred to as “sweet gas” or hydrocarbon gas. Employees that work with oil storage tanks have the highest risk of exposure. OSHA records show that there were 9 deaths from exposure to petroleum gases since 2010.

  • Radioactive Waste from Oil and Gas Drilling

    The oil and gas industry provides three-fifths of the energy for the United States. Every time we drive in a car, turn on a light bulb, or cook on a stove we are using the fossils of plants and animals as fuel. ... there is a likelihood of NORM and TENORM occurrence associated with oil and gas production in their state, or area where they live ...

  • Managing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM ...

    1.5 Accumulation of NOR in oil and gas production 13 1.6 NOR in oil and gas industry products 15 1.7 NOR oil and gas industry – liquid waste streams 16 1.8 NOR in oil and gas industry – solid waste streams 18 1.9 NOR in oil and gas industry – sludge and scrapings 19 1.10 Discharge to the environment 20 2. Health hazards of NORM 22

  • TENORM training NORM training NORM/TENORM training ...

    Developed specifically for the oil and gas industry, this course will give you an understanding of the hazards associated with NORM/TENORM and related personnel protection practices. This course uses U.S. units of measurement for radiation and radioactivity and meets the minimum training requirements in 29 CFR 1910.1096(i) and 10 CFR 19.12.

  • Health Physics Society: NORM Fact Sheet

    NORM in the oil and gas industry Radionuclides are known to be associated with organic materials in nature; therefore, oil, gas, and oil field brines frequently contain radioactive materials. These materials accumulate in piping used to remove and process petroleum and natural gas.

  • Norm In The Petroleum Industry Petroleum Education ...

    Course Overview. This course provides a general understanding of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials NORM in the petroleum industry. Because NORM contamination is so widespread in the petroleum industry, all personnel should be informed of the potential hazards associated with NORM

  • TENORM Radiation Safety From Oil and Gas Production

    Oil Gas Industry NORM/TENORM present in all phases Concentrations depend on geology Higher concentrations in production phase (scale/sludge) Drill cuttings Produced water/Produced water/flowback flowback waterwater Radon decay products in gas production equipment 8 December 2-3, IPEC 2015

  • TENORM - Department of Environmental Protection

    It is also common for the native rock strata involved with the oil and gas extraction industry to contain somewhat higher levels of NORM, specifically natural uranium, thorium and their decay products. ... announced it was going to study TENORM in materials associated with oil and gas development. Beginning in early 2013, DEP started analyzing ...