• Efficient and green approach for the esterification of ...

    Full Article. Efficient and Green Approach for the Esterification of Lignin with Oleic Acid Using Surfactant-combined Microreactors in Water. Liangliang An, a Chuanling Si, b Guanhua Wang, b Cheol Soon Choi, a Yong Ho Yu, a Jin Ho Bae, a Soo Min Lee, c and Yong Sik Kim d, * A green, effective, and feasible reaction for esterification of lignin with oleic acid in water at room temperature was ...

  • Efficient and Green Approach for the Esterification of ...

    5 to 10 mg lignin samples were used for determination under N 2 atmosphere. The temperature program was performed as follows: (1) raise temperature to 105 °C at a rate of 10 °C/min, hold for 5 min to remove moisture, then cool to 20 °C at a rate of 10 °C/min;

  • A sustainable approach for efficient conversion of lignin ...

    Therefore, the treatment by the strain LZ-K2 is a promising approach for pretreatment of lignocellulose by lignin disruption to make cellulose more accessible. The absence of glycoside hydrolase family 7(GH7) and abundance of oxidoreductase genes in LZ-K2 are similar to those in C. subvermispora , which was reported to exhibit pronounced lignin ...

  • Cited by: 2
  • A Comprehensive Approach for Quantitative Lignin ...

    A detailed approach for the quantification of different lignin structures in milled wood lignin (MWL) has been suggested using a combination of NMR techniques. 1H−13C heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence and quantitative 13C NMR of nonacetylated and acetylated spruce MWL have been found to have a synergetic effect, resulting in significant progress in the characterization of lignin ...

  • Cited by: 485
  • The Determination of Lignin SpringerLink

    The determination of lignin is an analysis that is performed routinely for characterizing lignocellulosic material, for assessing the effects of chemical, physical, and biological treatments of wood and pulp, for monitoring effluents in wood processing industries and, in the case of chemical pulps, for estimating bleach chemical requirements.

  • Cited by: 747
  • Klason Lignin - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    The applied lignin extraction methodology was proven efficient, confirmed by the quantitative HPLC and determination of Klason lignin analyses. The most suitable condition for the process was the use of 0% ethanol as co-solvent at 47 °C and 75 bar resulting in lower insoluble lignin content and higher available sugars concentration.

  • SIMPLIFIED DETERMINATION OF LIGNIN CONTENT IN HARD AND ...

    The spectrophotometric approach yielded lignin contents for Yellow poplar and Southern pine of 25.7 ± 1.1% and 26.7 ± 0.7%, respectively, which are comparable to the values obtained by a standard wet chemical protocol, 25.1% ± 0.7 and 26.6 ± 0.4%, respectively.

  • Identification of lignin oligomers in Kraft lignin using ...

    Oct 10, 2018  Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) allows for determination of functional groups and interunit linkages, and has therefore been extensively used to investigate the chemical composition of Kraft lignin [11, 12]. However, with techniques like Py-GC/MS and NMR, it is difficult to identify and characterise single lignin oligomers (LOs ...

  • Lignin Determination [12]

    LIGNIN DETERMINATION . 91 Methylation -Oxidation. 7 . Oxidation of lignin, after methylation, is an-other widely used procedure. It is more diagnostic for lignins than the nitrobenzene procedure, because it yields more identifiable products char-acteristic of lignin. The

  • Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in ...

    Procedure Title: Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure 1. Introduction 1.1 Carbohydrates and lignin make up a major portion of biomass samples. These constituents must be measured as part of a comprehensive biomass analysis. Carbohydrates can be structural or nonstructural.

  • A Comprehensive Approach for Quantitative Lignin ...

    A detailed approach for the quantification of different lignin structures in milled wood lignin (MWL) has been suggested using a combination of NMR techniques. 1H−13C heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence and quantitative 13C NMR of nonacetylated and acetylated spruce MWL have been found to have a synergetic effect, resulting in significant progress in the characterization of lignin ...

  • SIMPLIFIED DETERMINATION OF LIGNIN CONTENT IN HARD

    The spectrophotometric approach yielded lignin contents for Yellow poplar and Southern pine of 25.7 ± 1.1% and 26.7 ± 0.7%, respectively, which are comparable to the values obtained by a standard wet chemical protocol, 25.1% ± 0.7 and 26.6 ± 0.4%, respectively.

  • A New Method for Demethylation of Lignin from Woody ...

    content. Using the esterification approach as reported by Kurimoto et al. [26,27] aided in the determination of the total OH value. A mixture of 0.2-0.5 g of each lignin (SKL and DL) sample and 25 ml of phthalation reagent was separately heated at 110°C for 20 min. After cooling, 50ml of a dioxane/water solution (80:20 v/v) was

  • Structural Characterization of Lignin and Its Degradation ...

    Lignin is highly branched phenolic polymer and accounts 15–30% by weight of lignocellulosic biomass (LCBM). The acceptable molecular structure of lignin is composed with three main constituents linked by different linkages. However, the structure of lignin varies significantly according to the type of LCBM, and the composition of lignin strongly depends on the degradation process.

  • (PDF) Determination of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin ...

    Determination of lignin content in Norway spruce wood by Fourier. ... (NIRS) is a fast and economic approach to predict chemical compounds in such large sample sizes.

  • Whats the easiest way to test a sample's lignin content?

    Although people have argued that Lignin is not the only contributor to the Kappa number but this method still remains a good method for determination of lignin content in Pulp.

  • Determination of hydroxyl groups in biorefinery resources ...

    This protocol describes a quantitative 31P NMR spectroscopy approach for the analysis and determination of hydroxyl groups on biorefinery resources such as lignins and tannins.

  • Lignin characterization - Wikipedia

    The term "Lignin characterization" (or "Lignin analysis") refers to a group of activities within lignin research aiming at describing the characteristics of a lignin by determination of its most important properties.Most often, this term is used to describe the characterization of technical lignins by means of chemical or thermo-chemical analysis. . Technical lignins are lignins isolated from ...

  • 1 FACTORS AFFECTING QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF

    Procedure for Determination of Lignin in Wood Since it has been shown that certain factors .affect the_ lignin determination, it is suggested that the sulfuric acid method for the determination of lignin in wood be modified to read as follows: ' Approximately 2 grams of air-dried sawdust (60 to SO, .or SO.

  • A fast track for the accurate determination of methoxyl ...

    The lignin content was calculated based on the assumption that one methoxyl group corresponds to one 200 Da monolignol C 6 –C 3 unit. The results were significantly more accurate compared to conventional approaches. 13,14. During decades of lignin research, many approaches were proposed for quantitative methoxyl group determination.

  • and accurate determination of the lignin content of ...

    Feb 01, 2015  This approach takes advantage of unique chemical structures within lignin to differentiate it from the other components of lignocellulosic biomass. Quantitative analysis of lignin in lignocellulosic biomass using 13 C CP MAS ssNMR spectroscopy also required the preparation of a pristine lignin standard, to serve as a calibrant.

  • Determination of Phenolic Hydroxyl Content of Lignin ...

    Determination of Free Phenol in Polyoxyethylene Phenyl Ethers. Analytical Chemistry 1955, 27 (11) , 1836-1838. DOI: 10.1021/ac60107a055. Kyosti Sarkanen and Conrad Schuerch. Conductometric Determination of Phenolic Groups in Mixtures Such as Isolated Lignins.

  • Acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp (Reaffirmation of T ...

    T 222 om-02 Acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp / 2 NOTE 1: The acid-soluble lignin can be determined in a solution, after filtering off the insoluble lignin, by a spectrophotometric method based on absorption of ultraviolet radiation. The most often used wavelength is 205 nm (1).1.3 The total lignin content in pulps can be estimated fairly closely by rapid, indirect methods based on

  • and accurate determination of the lignin content of ...

    Feb 01, 2015  This approach takes advantage of unique chemical structures within lignin to differentiate it from the other components of lignocellulosic biomass. Quantitative analysis of lignin in lignocellulosic biomass using 13 C CP MAS ssNMR spectroscopy also required the preparation of a pristine lignin standard, to serve as a calibrant.

  • Determination of Phenolic Hydroxyl Content of Lignin ...

    Determination of Free Phenol in Polyoxyethylene Phenyl Ethers. Analytical Chemistry 1955, 27 (11) , 1836-1838. DOI: 10.1021/ac60107a055. Kyosti Sarkanen and Conrad Schuerch. Conductometric Determination of Phenolic Groups in Mixtures Such as Isolated Lignins.

  • A fast track for the accurate determination of methoxyl ...

    The lignin content was calculated based on the assumption that one methoxyl group corresponds to one 200 Da monolignol C 6 –C 3 unit. The results were significantly more accurate compared to conventional approaches. 13,14. During decades of lignin research, many approaches were proposed for quantitative methoxyl group determination.

  • Thematic Online Newsletter and Database - ili-lignin

    This type of approach gives usually satisfactory results for research, product specification and quality control purposes. Summaries, Overviews and Priority Papers: Lignin structure and analytical methods Version 1.2 June 2008 (Overview paper) ... Lignin molecular mass determination using SEC/MALDI-TOF-MS (Poster)

  • Spruce milled wood lignin: linear, branched or cross ...

    The subject of lignin structure, critical for fundamental and practical reasons, is addressed in this study that includes a review of the methods applied to elucidate macromolecular branching. The recently available approaches for determination of the absolute molecular mass of spruce milled wood lignin

  • and accurate determination of the lignin content of ...

    and accurate determination of the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass by solid-state NMR Li Fua, Scott A. McCalluma, Jianjun Miaoa, Courtney Hartb, Gregory J. Tudrynb, Fuming Zhanga, Robert J. Linhardta,c,⇑ a Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA bEcovative Design, LLC, 70 Cohoes Ave, Green Island, NY 12183, USA

  • Acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp (Reaffirmation of T ...

    T 222 om-02 Acid-insoluble lignin in wood and pulp / 2 NOTE 1: The acid-soluble lignin can be determined in a solution, after filtering off the insoluble lignin, by a spectrophotometric method based on absorption of ultraviolet radiation. The most often used wavelength is 205 nm (1).1.3 The total lignin content in pulps can be estimated fairly closely by rapid, indirect methods based on

  • Determination of Lignin Content in Norway Spruce Wood by ...

    Determination of Lignin Content in Norway Spruce Wood by Fourier Transformed near Infrared Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares Regression. Part 1: Wavenumber Selection and Evaluation of the Selected Range Show all authors. Manfred Schwanninger a. Manfred Schwanninger .

  • Development of Chemometric Model for Characterization of ...

    To determine amount of lignin, the PLSR was the best ( R 2 =0.83%) when the spectral data were de-trained and smoothed with Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filtering simultaneously. For prediction of α -cellulose, the PLSR was the best model ( R 2 =0.94%) when the data were pretreated with mean normalization. ...

  • Determination of Hemicellulose, Cellulose and Lignin in ...

    Nov 25, 2015  The LS-SVM models for predicting hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin all obtained excellent results with high determination coefficients of 0.921, 0.909 and 0.892 respectively.

  • Analysis of Lignin (Klason), Lignin (Klason) Content of ...

    Klason Lignin constitutes the major mass proportion of the lignin content for most biomass samples, with the remainder of lignin being classified as Acid Soluble Lignin. It is equal to the Acid Insoluble Residue content of the sample minus the Acid Insoluble Ash content (i.e. it is the organic fraction of the sample that is not hydrolysed in acid).

  • Preparation and Characterization of a Water‐Soluble Kraft ...

    Lignin derived from Kraft pulping is generally insoluble in water in the neutral and acidic pH range. While many scientific approaches aim to develop applications for this type of water insoluble lignin, a second approach is to solubilize lignin, for example, by chemical modification, and generate a

  • FTIR-ATR-based prediction and modelling of lignin and ...

    Apr 10, 2011  The direct determination of lignin content by wet chemical methods and the measurement of energy contents are laborious and time-consuming. Hence reliable, high-throughput methods for the determination of lignin and the energy content are in great demand to identify valuable germplasm for specific applications such as bioenergy poplars for the ...

  • Lignin degradation: A microbial approach

    enzymes such as lignin peroxidase, laccase, manganese peroxidase etc. However, there are very few research activities regarding role of microbes in lignin degra-dation. Lignin hydrolysis using various microbes with eco-friendly approach is a challenge for researchers globally. Therefore, in order to reduce the adverse effect

  • FTIR-ATR-based prediction and modelling of lignin and ...

    Apr 10, 2011  The direct determination of lignin content by wet chemical methods and the measurement of energy contents are laborious and time-consuming. Hence reliable, high-throughput methods for the determination of lignin and the energy content are in great demand to identify valuable germplasm for specific applications such as bioenergy poplars for the ...

  • Lignin - Wikipedia

    Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form key structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily.Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.

  • Direct mapping of morphological distribution of syringyl ...

    The TOF‐SIMS semiquantitative approach to determine lignin in this report indicated that the distribution of the relative ion intensity is useful in monitoring, not only the concentration of the S and G lignin units between cell types and tissues , but also the total lignin concentration between annual rings (Figure S3). Further study of ...

  • Determination of Lignin Content via Direct ...

    Sep 30, 2010  A rapid and efficient process for the measurement of lignin content in the plant cell walls is reported. The described method can be used to analyze ball‐ or Wiley‐milled samples at a microscale via direct dissolution and 1 H NMR analysis of biomass using perdeuterated pyridinium chloride/[D 6]DMSO bisolvent system.

  • and accurate determination of the lignin content of ...

    and accurate determination of the lignin content of lignocellulosic biomass by solid-state NMR Li Fua, Scott A. McCalluma, Jianjun Miaoa, Courtney Hartb, Gregory J. Tudrynb, Fuming Zhanga, Robert J. Linhardta,c,⇑ a Center for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180, USA bEcovative Design, LLC, 70 Cohoes Ave, Green Island, NY 12183, USA

  • Molecules Free Full-Text Stepwise Ethanol-Water ...

    In this work, lignin fractionation is proposed as an effective approach to reduce the heterogeneity of lignin and improve the adsorption and recycle performances of lignin as a cationic dye adsorbent. By stepwise dissolution of enzymatic hydrolysis lignin in 95% and 80% ethanol solutions, three lignin subdivisions (95% ethanol-soluble subdivision, 80% ethanol-soluble subdivision, and 80% ...

  • DETERMINATION OF LIGNIN CONTENT IN ACACIA SPP USING

    High correlation coefficients were found between laboratory and predicted values for Klason lignin, acid-soluble lignin, and total lignin contents, with R2 and RMSEP values ranging from 0.67 to 0.94, and 0.19 to 0.526, respectively. The study showed that NIR analysis can be reliably used to predict lignin

  • Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory Procedures ...

    The complex structure of lignin makes it difficult and time consuming to determine coefficients for UV-Vis peak maxima and extinction. The values listed in the Determination of Structural Carbohydrates and Lignin in Biomass LAP were based on a LAP that is no longer available and not supported by NREL.

  • High-throughput determination of thioglycolic acid lignin ...

    High-throughput determination of thioglycolic acid lignin from rice. ... Ayako Okuno, Ko Hirano, Kenji Asano, et al. New Approach to Increasing Rice Lodging Resistance and Biomass Yield Through the Use of High Gibberellin Producing Varieties. PLoS ONE. 2014, Vol.9, No.2, p.e86870.

  • Determination of lignin in herbaceous plants by an ...

    A modified acetyl bromide procedure is proposed for the spectrophotometric determination of lignin in herbaceous plants. The digestion with 25 % acetyl bromide (AcBr) in acetic acid at 70°C is improved by including 4 % perchloric acid in the digesting solutions. This allows for more rapid, complete digestion and the use of coarser samples.

  • High-throughput determination of thioglycolic acid lignin ...

    5% lignin and the lignin content slightly increased to 6.7% in 30-cm-long leaves (Figure 3). These results are consistent with the finding that lignin content does not increase in the leaf and stem of immature oat and wheat plants and lignin starts to increase as the plants approach maturity (Sarkanen and Hergert 1971).

  • WP2303: Lignin and lignosulfonate characterization with SE ...

    approach the true molar mass is an extrapolation from early elution times. It is important to base the extrapolation on the FM derived ... lignin molar mass determination becomes less challeng-ing and a routine application for industrial lignin samples is made feasible. haracterization of lignosulfonates by

  • (PDF) Determination of Lignin Content via Direct ...

    Determination of Lignin Content via Direct Dissolution and 1H NMR Analysis of Plant Cell Walls

  • Determination of Lignin and Cellulose in Acid-Detergent ...

    A newly developed indirect method for lignin, utilizing permanganate, permits the determination of cellulose and insoluble ash in the same sample. The new permanganate lignin method is intended as an alternative procedure to the 72% sulfuric acid method over which it offers definite advantages as well as certain disadvantages.